Monday, September 15, 2008

What happens to your skin?

To grow old - means to be exposed to the irreversible destructive processes occurring in an organism. The maximum frequency of warm reductions and intensity of a metabolism in the course of time only decrease.

Some kinds of sports, for example, gymnastics, very quickly and with all evidence find out this prompt decrease of our potential possibilities. Usually appreciable recession of physical possibilities of an organism begins after thirty years.

The same picture, by the way, is observed and concerning abilities of other sense, in particular in such intellectual disciplines, as mathematics. However, there some progress is not excluded up to 50 years.

Aging - progressing decrease in possibilities of the person which reminds not which process of deterioration of the car. Inevitable, inevitable ageing by the nature is result of action of the certain internal mechanism which with bad health works for people in the accelerated rate.

Bilogical watch?

According to this theory, each kind of live organisms has certain life expectancy. A certain inner clock counts time and starts the destroying mechanism causing ageing and as a result leading death.

It is known that each kind has also certain maximum life expectancy. For a turtle is on the average 130 years (can be and more), for the person–120 years, for a cat – 20 years, and for a shrew – only 2 years. It suggests that life expectancy of a kind is genetically programmed.

The assumption will be co-ordinated by that various cages of which fabrics of a human body consist, reproduce themselves division only the limited number of times. Here pertinent there is a mention so-called «a limit of Hajflika».

The experiences spent over cellular cultures of various kinds of animals, have shown that there is a maximum number of the divisions made by a cage. It depends on a kind to which the animal belongs, type of a cage and age of the donor at which was the cage is taken. It also is the limit of Hajflika named in honour of the scientist, for the first time found out this phenomenon.

The cage of a skin of a hand, taken from the newborn, shares about 50 times, at the 40-year-old person – 40 times, at 90-year-old – 30 times. On the other hand, there is a communication between average life expectancy of a kind and a corresponding limit of Hajflika. For example, the turtle living about 175 years, has the limit of Hajflika equal 130. So, cell fission process in a statement of scientists (in it, the truth, very many scientific terms, but without them to explain this process very difficult) here is how looks. During cellular reproduction telomers (the structures providing stability of chromosomes) lose a small part of the length. After some number of divisions теломеры become very short, and the cage loses ability to the further division.

It, possibly, also existence of a certain limit of divisions speaks. Germinal cages which are responsible for transfer of a life from generation to generation, contain enzyme - теломеразу. This enzyme regulates length теломера and, thereby, causes existence of a limit of Hajflika. Opening telomers suggested that the key to immortality with which help it will be possible to block internal clocks is found.

However it is necessary to remember that it only a hypothesis demanding careful research. Existence of a limit of Hajflika shows that the theory of internal clocks basically is true. But the age at which there comes genetically programmed death connected with a sharp stop of the basic mechanism of the biological car, strongly differs from the maximum life expectancy established for the given kind. Under this theory at the person the last, 50, division should occur in 250-300 years. To this age, however, nobody lives because of loss by cages of the functions as a result of accident of errors.

Is your skin getting old?

According to statistics, almost two thirds of all cosmetic means are intended for struggle against skin aging. Many of us are convinced till now that there are certain magic means which are capable to return us the youth.

Is it right? And which are the real reasons of aging? Whether it is possible to speak about skin aging, without taking into account a condition of all organism? Why we grow old?

We will begin conversation with the reasons of aging of an organism as a whole. After all the skin is its only small part. That is why its age changes simply reflect all that occurs to all organism.

Scientists assert that aging is a process with two components: hereditary and got. There is a set of hypotheses about the biological reasons of this process from which it is possible to allocate two cores: the theory of accident of errors and the theory of internal clocks. The theory of accident of errors At studying of various types of pathologies and frequencies of their occurrence depending on age of Lesli Orgel in 1963 has put forward a hypothesis that ageing grows out of accumulation of errors at cellular level.

The external reasons (ionising radiation, toxic products etc.) and the internal reasons (free radicals) provoke, according to the theory, occurrence of errors in the genetic program. These errors lead to gradual infringement of functions of a cage and even to synthesis of an abnormal protein. Progressive accumulation of these errors during time results, as assume, to the gradual termination of functions of a cage in particular and an organism as a whole, causes aging, and then and death.